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The Strange Case of the Missing 7mm/06 Ackley Improved Part II Starring a Ruger Von Hawkeye, P.O. Ackley and some pretty impressive numbers

I’m pretty sure, we won’t be seeing the substance of “Practical Dope on the Big Bores” popping up on a blog any time soon. The book was published at a time, 1948, when dedicated enthusiasts routinely created wildcat cartridges, made their own bullets, experimented with powder types, and poked and tweaked combinations to serve their personal applications. Ackley, to his credit, was one of those folks, one of many. There were over two dozen 280 Improved and wildcat type cartridges of record, with at least a third based on the 30-06 Springfield case and predating the 280 Remington by a couple of decades.

My intention is not to diminish the accomplishments of P.O. Ackley. In fact, it was his work that fueled my interest in firearms. He had the rare ability to create and communicate, which has served all firearm enthusiasts. Perhaps the 280 Ackley Improved cartridge, a Nosler rather than Ackley invention, is more of a tribute to Ackley and to his contemporaries. People whose ingenuity and persistence have left us with so many choices in firearms and cartridges and a varied and colorful history to build upon.

Historical Backdrop*

My 1959 copy of P.O. Ackley’s 1959 book, “Handbook For Shooters and Reloaders” is heavily notated with the fountain pen scribbling of a fourteen year old. Mostly kinetic energy calculations for all of the big cartridges being assessed for my forthcoming African Safari. Never made that trip. Never met Ackley and could not tell you if he was a good guy or a bad guy, except by reputation, but he created a positive backdrop for firearms based on innovation and ingenuity.

The 1959 edition reflects a modest Ackley, with more than two-thirds of the articles written by Ackley’s contemporaries and with credit for handload data shared with five industry sources. Ackley’s comments were even handed, even when directed at his own improved mechanical progeny, ranging from. “No real improvement” and “Too overbore” to “good improvement”. No outlandish claims, no overstated performance and a lot of credit to other wildcat and improved cartridge producers.

No 280 Ackley Improved cartridge appears in the 1959 edition of Ackley book, only the factory 280 Remington and Ackley’s 7mm/06 Ackley Improved and a few similar cartridges created by others. The greatly expanded 1962 edition of Ackley’s “Handbook For Shooters and Reloaders Part I” lists the 7mm/06 Ackley Improved on page 393 and the 280 Remington Improved, RCBS credited, on page 395. The Ackley case is slightly shorter, has a bit more body taper, the body is longer, the neck is shorter, and the shoulder angle is 39.80° compared to 32.62° for the 280 Remington Improved. In the 1959 edition, Ackley credits the .285 OKH (O’Neill, Keith and Hopkins) as the standard 7mm/06. This cartridge also carried over to the 1962 edition.

So what is the difference within this group of 7mm cartridges? Variations in body taper, shoulder angle, neck length and case capacity: 7mm/06 Ackley Improved 67.5 grains, 280 Remington Improved 67.4 grains, 280 Remington 68.6 grains,  285 OKH 70.8 grains. The differences are not immaterial as there are currently retail die sets for: 280 Remington, 280 Ackley Improved 30° shoulder, 280 RCBS 30° shoulder, 280 Ackley Improved 40° shoulder, 280 Ackley Improved, 7mm-06, and 7mm-06 Ackley Improved 40° shoulder. What to do? What to do?

SAAMI has a standard version of the improved 280 Remington with the nomenclature 280 Ackley Improved which appears to be a melding of the best aspects of all of the “improved” cartridges. The standard 280 Remington with 140 grain bullet, based on a 24″ test barrel, is rated at 2,985 fps. The 280 Ackley Improved cartridge, with the same test circumstances, is rated at 3,260 fps. Looking at the historical versions of Improved and Ackley cases, how did we get to this SAAMI cartridge?

Nosler submitted a version of the 280 Ackley Improved to SAAMI and received certification in 2014. The SAAMI version is a slightly different banana in the bunch. The case is longer than Ackley’s 7mm/06, the body is longer, less taper increases shoulder diameter, shoulder angle is 40°, and the neck is shorter. As a result, the SAAMI 280 Ackley has a 74.0 grain capacity. To further boost the Improved version’s performance MAP pressure is 65kpsi compared to 60kpsi for the standard 280 Remington.

Wow! With all of that crazy ammunition must be hard to find.

The 280 Ackley Improved is an “improved” cartridge, so standard ammunition, in this case the 280 Remington, can also be safely fired. There are approximately 18 factory loads for the 280 Remington and 12 factory loads for the 280 Ackley Improved, so 30 factory loads that are compatible with the Ruger Hawkeye African 280 AI. The difference between standard and improved 280 ammunition, which is why the Ackley Improved exists. Federal Premium 150 grain ammo  is rated 3,075 fps for the 280 Ackley Improved and 2,890 fps for the same in 280 Remington, or a 185 fps difference.

I realize we live in a disposable society that routinely junk cars, computers and major appliances where failure is followed by a greater effort than a two minute head scratch, however, handloading is alive and well.As a young guy withe an interest in firearms that far outstripped a financial accommodation, I don’t think I shot a round of 243 Winchester or 25-06 Remington were not casehead stamped, respectively, 308 Winchester and 30-06 Springfield.The 280 Ackley Improved can be made from any 30-06 Springfield cartridge or 30-06 Springfield derivative.

Lots and lots… and lots of bullets

The 280 Ackley Improved, like the 280 Remington, is suitable for any medium to large North American game. In support of those applications, fourteen manufacturers produce a total of one hundred seventeen 0.284″ bullets, in weights from 100 grains to 197 grains and in many different types. No, I am too old and too slow to work one hundred seventeen bullets into a project. Six is my limit.

The six bullets selected are all lead core jacketed, but there is also a good selection of monolithic copper hunting bullets. The 120 grain Sierra is heavy enough and tough enough in construction for deer hunting, antelope hunting and probably coyote hunting. The 175 Grain Remington PSP is tough enough for very heavy bodied game. My favorites are the 140 grain Remington PSP and Speer 160 grain to the extent I also load them in both my 7mm Remington Mag and 7x57mm Mauser.

So why are the Berger VLD bullets present? I like flat base bullets because they conserve case capacity and they are all I need for the shooting distances that exist in my world. Still, I realize there are those who plan tail end shots on chipmunks at 500 yards and very low drag profile bullets are popular for that application.

There is the obvious VLD aerodynamic component, but there is also the refined construction that allows full expansion at longer distances, even after velocity has been shed. However, they still expand without fragmenting a closer distances. Sounds almost magical? Yes. I like flat based bullets and shooting at targets local to my zip code.

A very attractive cartridge that goes well with a very attractive Ruger

Once fired Federal nickle plated brass was used for the final chronograph data collection, however, fire formed 280 Remington and 30-06 Springfield brass were also used during some aspects of the process. If I don’t get too lazy, I will wet check all to see if, or to what degree, case capacity varies. Lee Precision dies were used for assembly, including a collet crimp die. Lee was selected because they were readily available and, unlike some other manufacturers, they do not pretend that the 280 AI is a “special” cartridge and attempt to 2x mark up the price.

For folks with Hornady headspace gauges and similar, even with the revised shoulder angle, the 280 Ackley Improved has the same 0.375″ headspace diameter at the datum point and can use the standard Hornady 0.375 gauge bushing as also used for the 280 Rem and most of the other 30-06 based cartridges… and the 6.5 Creedmoor… and the 30-30 WCF… and the 300 H&H Magnum. Someone please stop me from listing.

 

Improved Versions of the 280 Remington
Dry Weight
Grains
Wet Weight
Grains
Grains H2O
Capacity
Federal AI (New) 204.6 278.2 73.6
Federal 280 Ackley Improved 204.8 279.5 74.7
Made from 280 Remington 203.0 277.7 74.7
Made from 30-06 Springfield 198.4 272.0 73.6
Brass Source Once Fired, except as noted.
Standard Remington 280 capacity 68.6 grains H2O

I took the plunge, broke out the gear and checked spillover full volume as posted on the table above. The nominal H2O capacity for the 280 Remington is 68.6 grains. Nominal capacity for the 280 Ackley Improved is 74.0 grains*. Made from brass was Remington manufacturer.

Handload Data

Warning: Bullet selections are specific, and loads are not valid with substitutions of different bullets of the same weight. Variations in bullet length will alter net case capacity,  pressure and velocity. Primer selection is specific and primer types are not interchangeable. These are maximum loads in my firearms and may be excessive in others. All loads should be reduced by 5% as a starting point for development where cartridges have greater than 40 grains in capacity and 10% for cartridges with less than 40 grain capacity following safe handloading practices as represented in established mainstream reloading manuals. Presentation of these loads does not constitute a solicitation for their use, nor a recommendation.

 

Cartridge – 280 Ackley Improved 65kpsi
Firearm Ruger M77
Barrel Length 24.00″
Min – Max Case Length 2.525″ +0.000″/-0.012″
Min – Max COL 3.136″ – 3.330″
Primer CCI 250
Bullet Diameter 0.2845″ +0.000″/-0.0030″
Reloading Dies Lee Precision
Bullet Type Bullet Weight
Grains
Net H2O
Grains
Capacity
COL” Powder Type Powder Charge
Grains
Muzzle Velocity
fps
Muzzle Energy
ft/lbs
3 Shot
100 Yd
Group
Sierra Pro-Hunter
120 70.2 3.200 RL 17 60.5 3456 3183  0.7
Sierra Pro-Hunter 120 70.2 3.200 IMR 4350 60.5 3306 2913 0.9
Sierra Pro-Hunter 120 70.2 3.200 Win 760 60.5 3346 2984 0.6
Berger VLD Hunting
140
66.4
3.330
RL 19
60.0
3131
3048
 0.5
Berger VLD Hunting
140
66.4
3.330
Hybrid 100V
56.0
3054
2900
 0.7
Berger VLD Hunting
140
66.4
3.330
RS Hunter
60.5
3141
3068
0.8
Remington PSP 140 68.4 3.290 RL 22 63.5 3182 3148  0.8
Remington PSP 140 68.4 3.290 Norma MRP 64.0 3272 3329  1.0
Remington PSP 140 68.4 3.290 RS Hunter 61.0 3056 2904  0.9
Speer SP 160 66.4 3.300 RL 19 59.5 2981 3158  0.6
Speer SP 160 66.4 3.300 IMR 7828 SSC 60.5 2974 3143 0.8
Speer SP 160 66.4 3.300 Norma MRP 60.0 2896 2980  0.6
Berger VLD Hunting
168
64.6
3.330
RL 22
59.0
2839
3007
 0.5
Berger VLD Hunting 168 64.6
3.330
Hybrid 100V
52.8
2775
2873
 0.7
Berger VLD Hunting 168 64.6
3.330
RS Hunter
56.0
2806
2938
0.3
Remington PSP 175 65.6 3.285 RL 22 58.0 2745 2929  0.6
Remington PSP 175 65.6 3.285 Hybrid 100V 52.5 2680 2792 0.9
Remington PSP 175 65.6 3.285 IMR 7828 SSC 58.0 2756 2952  0.7

Notes: Someone once posted that I do not make notes available. I don’t know what that means, outside of the quantification noted. So I now try to end with some pithy comments to appease people who always want more.

The first three 120 grain loads really do get the same change weight with three different powders. Not a typo.

Hybrid 100V, which I thought would be the star going in, was lackluster going out. Just add more powder? Not really, as more left a very detailed tattoo of the bolt face on the case head.

Both RS Hunter and Norma MRP worked well. If it wasn’t maximum velocity, they both delivered good accuracy. IMR 7828 SSC is a great powder and, I suspect, I should use it more… considering I have about 80 lbs in reserve for 30-06 length belted magnum use.

What might they look like in flight?

Best Zero Results – 120 Grain Sierra
Near-Zero – yds. 30 Mid Range – yds. 158
Far-Zero – yds. 276 Max Ordinate – in. +3.0
Point Blank – yds. 293
Best Zero : Range 0 – 500 yards
Yards 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Velocity – fps 3456 3294 3138 2988 2843 2702 2565 2433 2305 2181 2061
Energy – ft.-lbs. 3182 2890 2623 2379 2153 1945 1753 1577 1415 1267 1131
Momentum – lbs-sec 59 56 54 51 49 46 44 42 40 37 35
Path – in. -1.50 0.81 2.33 2.96 2.61 1.19 -1.42 -5.35 -10.76 -17.79 -26.66
Drift – in. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Time Of Flight – sec. 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.14 0.19 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.43 0.49 0.56

 

Best Zero Results – 140 Grain Remington
Near-Zero – yds. 29 Mid Range – yds. 153
Far-Zero – yds. 269 Max Ordinate – in. +3.0
Point Blank – yds. 286
Best Zero : Range 0 – 500 yards
Yards 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Velocity – fps 3272 3144 3019 2898 2780 2665 2553 2444 2337 2233 2133
Energy – ft.-lbs. 3328 3071 2834 2611 2403 2208 2026 1856 1698 1550 1414
Momentum – lbs-sec 65 63 60 58 56 53 51 49 47 45 43
Path – in. -1.50 0.90 2.42 2.98 2.51 0.92 -1.90 -6.05 -11.66 -18.85 -27.80
Drift – in. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Time Of Flight – sec. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.31 0.37 0.43 0.50 0.57

 

Best Zero Results – 168 Grain Berger VLD
Near-Zero – yds. 26 Mid Range – yds. 138
Far-Zero – yds. 245 Max Ordinate – in. +3.0
Point Blank – yds. 262
Best Zero : Range 0 – 500 yards
Yards 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Velocity – fps 2839 2766 2695 2625 2555 2487 2420 2354 2290 2226 2163
Energy – ft.-lbs. 3006 2854 2709 2569 2436 2308 2185 2068 1955 1848 1745
Momentum – lbs-sec 68 66 65 63 61 60 58 57 55 53 52
Path – in. -1.50 1.14 2.65 2.96 2.01 -0.27 -3.96 -9.13 -15.86 -24.26 -34.41
Drift – in. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Time Of Flight – sec. 0.00 0.05 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.28 0.34 0.41 0.47 0.54 0.61

Clearly, the 280 Ackley Improved represents a very flat shooting rifle – cartridge combination. Above or below line of sight by no more than +- 3″, even a 168 grain heavyweight is point blank at 250 + yards, yet the cartridge is not a velocity scorcher that will convert bullets to grit inside of 100 yards. Very important in places like Maine where deer are notorious for hiding behind trees twenty yards away and thumbing their antlers at hunters.

Last words?

The more I shot the Ruger Hawkeye Africa, the more I came to appreciate its features. The stock geometry and rifle weight mitigated recoil and made shooting the rifle accurately, easier.

The bolt throw was really slick. None of that “Ran over a rut in the road” found in Mauser types at half stroke. I like the longish barrel and adjustable metallic sights. A relatively tight group at hundred yard was possible even with my time worn eyes.

I like the intuitive and very positive horizontal swing safety and I liked the operation of the hinged floorplate when dumping ammo. The LC6 trigger is very clean and with no creep and minimum overtravel.

I really like the 280 AI cartridge. Good shooting in factory form, it also gave me a handloader’s opportunity to work up load data and case form. The 280 Ackley Improved is significantly lighter recoiling than my 7mm Rem Mag, easier on brass and it consumes less powder for not a lot less velocity.

The subject rifle, like most African Hawkeyes is really pretty. It is hard to grumble about a good shooting rifle that also looks good. Nice gun.

* Sources: Handbook for Shooters and Reloaders 1959 – Ackley, Handbook for Shooters and Reloaders Part 1 1962 – Ackley, Handloader’s Manual of Cartridge Conversion – Donnelly, Design and Forming Custom Cartridges – Howell, The Gunsmith’s Book of Chamber Prints – PT&G, Practical Dope on the Big Bore” by F.C. Ness

The Strange Case of the Missing 7mm/06 Ackley Improved Part I Featuring Ruger Von Hawkeye in the role of Hunter Rifle

11/08/2020
Finally, summer gear and equipment is stowed, winter gear and equipment is staged. After two light snow flurries, the official start of winter in Maine is a mere formality. Charcoal gray skies, bone chilling temperatures and air heavy with humidity suggests a season of heavy snow lies ahead. It has been a tough year for most Americans. Subsequently, the challenge of severe weather and associated distractions are welcome. Perhaps there is a little of Hemingway’s Santiago in all of us.

The intersection of nostalgia and modern art

The Ruger Hawkeye African has all of the appearances of a classic express rifle, however, it is made with modern manufacturing technology, processes and materials. Subsequently, it has all of the aesthetic appeal of an early to mid 1900 firearm, but none of the mechanical foibles.This particular dark honey colored American walnut stock is figured with tiger stripe from forend to recoil pad.

The Ruger stock’s comb has little drop so as to accommodate either optical or metallic sights. Conservatively checkered surfaces, hand filling rounded contours and ebony caps remain. Precision casting, CNC machining and select heat treating make for a long lasting, tight mechanical assembly. Deep bluing and satin polymer wood finish make for durability that will withstand the test of hard use and severe weather.

Receiving SAAMI homologation in 2014 on a Nosler submission, the 280 Ackley Improved cartridge bears the spirit of P.O. Ackley Improved cartridge with its minimal body taper and 40° shoulders. However, the 280 Ackley Improved has approximately 10% greater capacity than Ackley’s original cartridge, the 7mm/06 Ackley Improved. It also has less taper, a longer body and 5,000 psi higher operating pressure. Part II will address cartridge nuance and history. For now, the rifle…

Ruger Hawkeye African Rifle

Manufacturer Ruger Firearms
Model 57126
Type Bolt Action
Caliber 280 Ackley Improved
Magazine Capacity 4
Barrel Length 24“
Rifling 1:8.5″ 5 Groove
Weight 7.5 lbs
Overall Length 45.88“
Stock American Walnut – Ebony Tipped
Hardware Satin Blued
Length of Pull 13.50″
Drop at comb 3/8″
Drop at heel 3/4″
Sights Folding Rear – Gold Bead Front
Scope Mounting
Ruger Proprietary
LC6 Trigger Pull 3 lbs. 12 oz. (Actual)
Safety 3 Position Thumb Safety

The Ruger Hawkeye African 280 AI is fitted with a 24″ barrel… coincidentally, the same length as the SAAMI specified test barrel standard used to velocity rate factory ammunition.

Despite the longish barrel, the rifle has excellent balance, which aids when offhand shooting or tracking to a moving target. None of that swinging a softball bat momentum, but enough weight up front to be steadying.

The barrel banded sling mount is a tradition carried over from big bore express rifles. The rifle, when slung, carries low on the shoulder and away from branches. The absence of a sling stud in the forearm is intended to protect the shooter’s hand from contact under severe recoil.

The 280 AI is a mild recoil cartridge, not producing the heavy recoil of a 458 Lott, or the retina detaching recoil of a 505 Gibbs. Subsequently, Ruger has been considerate in leaving a mounting point in the forearm for those who would prefer this location for a front sling swivel stud.

I’ve observed a good deal of social media discussion and impressive calculations regarding the barrel band; non-uniform pressure harmonics and the potentially adverse impact on accuracy.

Perhaps the best way to assess the influence of the barrel band is to step away from the computer, head out to the range and shoot the rifle. This is the fifth or sixth African that has seen extensive range time at Real Guns and they have all demonstrated excellent accuracy. So…

The Ruger scope mounting system is proprietary, however, there are numerous manufacturers producing their style of rings for the application. Typically, the rings packed with each Ruger Hawkeye are used, but I wanted to mount an old favorite Leupold scope with a 50mm objective lens because aging eyes need light more than super high magnification. A pair of Warnes medium height rings gave me a 0.050″ increase in ring saddle height and paper thin clearance under the bell, locating the scope as close to bore centerline as possible.

Both the Warne, above left, and Ruger rings lock to the Ruger’s receiver at three points, anchoring the rings longitudinally and laterally and keeping the scope aligned and parallel to the rifle’s bore.

The figure in this stock is quite striking. It is as though an American Walnut tree was planted close to a curly maple. The forearm is short, quick tapered, but hand filling at the checking. The front screw at the forend can be replaced with a sling swivel stud.

No Monte Carlo stock hump, no cheek piece, just a clean straight comb and sweeping grip makes for a natural shooting position and plenty of support. Ruger uses a thin line recoil pad which may seem a tad thin, but in practice not at all. And the pad does not feel like a giant gum eraser being pulled to the shoulder.

With the flush mounted release in the front of the trigger guard, the Hawkeye’s hinged floorplate is a useful feature. Few people go out for a day of hunting and conclude with an empty magazine, even if they have a deer carcass in tow. I have also heard rumors of some reviewers shooting numbered cartridges for data collection, who occasionally get preoccupied and can’t remember if they loaded rounds #56, #57 and #58, or #58, #57 and #56. It is a lot easier and safer to release the floorplate, dump the magazine contents, then clear chamber check.

A rear, folding leaf express sight is adjustable for windage and elevation. The ramped front sight is faces with a brass bead. The combination is quite visible against virtually any outdoor target and critical enough in alignment to deliver solid metallic sight performance. Not fragile in the least, adjustment stayed put throughout range days.

Will I find 280 AI ammunition in Froozbut, Alaska?

The 280 AI is an improved cartridge, so standard ammunition, in this case the 280 Remington, can also be safely fired. There are approximately 18 factory loads for the 280 Remington and 12 factory loads for the 280 Ackley Improved, so 30 factory loads that are compatible with the Ruger Hawkeye African 280 AI. The difference between standard and improved 280 ammunition, which is why the Ackley Improved exists. Federal Premium 150 grain ammo  is rated 3,075 fps for the 280 Ackley Improved and 2,890 fps for the same in 280 Remington, or a 185 fps difference.

The handloader has a much bigger universe to work within as 280 Ackley brass is available and virtually any 30-06 Springfield derivative case can be made into 280 AI Brass. Left to right – A 30-06 Springfield, followed by a 30-06 Springfield passed through a 280 AI sizer die. A 30-06 Springfield case after being sized in a 280 AI sizer, reloaded and fired in a 280 AI chamber. A factory Federal Premium with 168 grain Berger bullet. Right to left – a 280 Remington cartridge, a 280 Remington fired in the 280 AI chamber.

Untrue truisms…

My working theory is that no cartridge is inherently accurate, so I do not believe that going from 280 Remington to 280 AI will improve a rifle’s accuracy. Conversely, I don’t think going from 280 AI to 280 Remington will make a rifle less accurate. This is with the qualifier that ammunition is good quality in both cases. Fire forming brass consumes energy as the brass inflates to fill the chamber. Surely that would alter velocity and accuracy.

The 7/8″ 100 yard group on the left was shot with Federal Premium 280 AI 168 grain Berger clocked at 2,757 fps. The 1/2″ group on the right was shot with 280 Remington handloads 160 grain Speer clocked at 2,767 fps. Measurement is center to center farthest holes.

The same box of Federal factory ammunition produced this 5 shot, 100 yard, 3/4″ group. At this point, not enough data points to reach a formal conclusion, but I do not see the 280 Ackley Improved shooter hampered by the use of 280 Remington ammo to a major degree. The plan is to work up enough handloads to verify as yet.

Are we done here? Not exactly…

Today, temperatures have climbed into the 80s, the lawn has remained green beneath all of the dead leaves and the Ruger barked all day without a hiccup. So, we’ll take a break, spend a few days at the reloading bench and then a bunch more at the range. If I have the time and inclination, maybe I can get some targets out to 200 yards and see how that goes.

The Ruger Hawkeye African is a traditional hunting rifle. I don’t believe it is the best choice for fending off multiple imaginary attackers, or clearing its way through a hoard of zombies, but it is a heck of a rifle for a deer, elk or moose hunt and one that fosters pride of ownership.

Winchester’s Model 70 Featherweight 280 Rem Part I The traditional hunting rifle lives on...

Winchester Model 70 Featherweight Manufactured Browning – Portugal Item# 535200227 Type Bolt Action Caliber 280 Remington Capacity 5+1 Barrel Length 22″ Rifling 1:10 RH Weight 7 Lbs 0 Oz Overall Length 42 3/4″ Stock Grade I Black Walnut Barreled Action Matte Blue Steel Length of Pull 13 3/4″ Drop at comb 1/2″ Drop at heel*…

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280 Remington Handload Data

Warning: Bullet selections are specific, and loads are not valid with substitutions of different bullets of the same weight. Variations in bullet length will alter net case capacity,  pressure and velocity. Primer selection is specific and primer types are not interchangeable. These are maximum loads in my firearms and may be excessive in others. All…

Real Guns is a membership supported publication. Membership offers access to: all current and archived articles, handload data, ballistic calculators, and the Real Guns Image Gallery. Membership is available for $29.95 for twelve months.

Please either Sign inorJoin Real Guns.