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M&P®45 SHIELD M2.0™ Small size, big bullet, quite concealable....

19/24/2021 I’m easily distracted. My plan was to gather my notes and write this evening, but I played the movie Monster Island in the background, got to the point where they found that the giant starfish had magma for blood and could not, would not, look away. Later, the movie of choice was Monster Hunters,…

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Browning’s Straight Pull T-Bolt Target 22LR Warning: small game gore images

My wife and I took a day off to watch the tourist survey New England foliage and to take some pictures… of the foliage. Beautiful day, but too soon into fall for really brilliant colors. We have lived in a number of states that put color into seasons, but mostly what I remember are the…

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Smith & Wesson’s Governor Part I Ten years down the road

09/26/2021 – I am well aware of when the S&W Governor was introduced. Yes, I did pass on examining shotshell accommodating revolvers because I could not see a practical application. The Governor is ten years old, I am ten years older. Perhaps, now that we have both had our space, we can be civil and see if there is something to talk about.

Thinking aloud while playing Governor catch up

Contrary to’s Rain Man like utterances, the 2007 Taurus Judge was not the Big Bang of the shotshell firing revolver universe. That honor probably goes to the MIL Thunder 5, the product of a company that seemed to specialize in designs for niche firearms. No that is not the guy who said “That which does not kill us makes us stronger”, it is a term that means something that appeals to a small, specialized section within a market.

No, please sit down and stop waving your hand while yelling “LeMat”. I am well aware of that revolver’s existence and it’s ability to fire multiple solid projectile calibers and shot. However, that is a cap and ball/shot revolver with two superimposed barrels, one rifled and one smooth bore and dedicated to a 20 gauge shot charge.And if accept the LeMat, why not the revolving pepper box and we can all have fun speaking pirate?

We are therefore arbitrarily, unilaterally, but not capriciously, drawing the line at the Mil Thunder 5 as the wellspring of stubby single barrel revolvers with both shot and solid projectile capability.

Why would any company bother with a niche product? There were approximately 40 million firearms sold into the United States in 2020, with a forecast suggesting a 24% increase in 2021. If an innovative company could round up even 1/10th of 1 % of that demand, that would be 40,000 units out the door. With an average selling price of even $900, you’ve got some entrepreneurial spirit living in hog heaven as commander and chief of a $36,000,000 company or a successful product manager presiding over a product line within a larger firearm company.

OK, I will take one more question. Yes, Scooter. Yes, I am aware that there are shotshells available for conventional 44 Mag and 45 Colt revolvers. However, those are not REAL shotshells, they are encapsulated shot. I have shot them and have found they are no better than a long stick or a walk around when dealing with snakes and mostly irritating to a attacker when used for self defense.

The Smith and Wesson Governor… or Gov, when said with a British accent


Smith & Wesson Model Governor
Manufactured Springfield, MA
SKU Number 162410
Type Action Double / Single
Caliber .410 2 1/2, 45 Colt, 45 Auto
Capacity 6
Frame Z Type – Scandium
Stainless Steel
Grips Synthetic Combat
Trigger Pull DA / SA  10 Lbs 11 Oz / 4 Lbs 5 Oz
Barrel Length 2.75″
Rifling  1:15″
Rear Sight Grooved Frame Top
Front Sight Tritium Night Sight
Type Safety Hammer Lock
Overall Length 8.50″
Overall Height 5.65″
Width – Cylinder 1.725″
Cylinder Length
Ext. Chamber Wall
Weight 29.6 Oz.
Approvals MA, MD
MSRP $905

The Smith and Wesson Governor is a large frame revolver that accommodates .410 2 1/2″ shots shells, 45 Colt and 45 Auto ammunition, discretely or in combination.

The Smith and Wesson Governor is based on a stretched version of the company’s N Frame, where the frame’s cylinder window accommodates the Governor’s 2.550″ long cylinder, as opposed to a more typical 1.710″ long cylinder associated with the N Frame.

The Governor is a relative lightweight. At this point I am not sure if that is a positive or negative trait. At 29.6 oz, it is 18.1 oz lighter than a 6.5″ barrel alloy steel Model 29 44 Magnum N Frame revolver.

Contributing to its light weight, the Governor’s cylinder is made of stainless steel, while the less stressed frame is made of Scandium; aluminum alloy with approximately 2% scandium for increased strength.

While the cylinder makes a big impression of…. bigness, the Governor is a full 2.75″ shorter than a 6.5″ barrel Model 29. The combination of long cylinder, short barrel and alloy frame make for a very balanced revolver.

The subject Governor features an illuminating Tritium night sight, as opposed to the SKU: 160410 version which features a black ramped front sight and overall matte silver finish. Both use a grooved frame top as a fixed rear sight.

Snub nose as proportion rather than size

The parallel with a Model 60 snub nose in 357 Magnum is probably a good illustration of form versus size. Both the S&W Model 60 and the Governor are snub nose in their own right; the Governor barrel is only 0.125″ longer. However, the Governor is a full 2″ longer in overall length. Part of the difference is in cylinder length, + 0.955″, with the rest coming from the size difference between J and N frame models. Compared to a Smith & Wesson Model 25 45 Colt N frame, the Governor’s cylinder is 0.880″ longer and only 0.010″ larger in diameter.

The Governor appears to be almost all cylinder, this one 1.725″ wide and 2.550″ long. While there are lots and lots of opinions as to how to carry a Governor, at this point, I am not certain what I would prefer. Not a heavyweight, holsters are available for wearing on the belt, cross chest and shoulder harness. At this point, I would guess cross chest as having the most support and pulling the bulk of Governor in close to the body. Yes, in the case of many mature enthusiasts, it can legitimately be referred to as a cross belly holster.

While the frame is N size, the round butt grip is K size, which brings down the overall size of the Governor. Why is ammunition in the picture? I was going

Shots fired! Hmmm…

 The S&W Governor can be loaded up with all 410 bore ammo as pictured above, or all 45 Colt or 45 Auto, or with a mixed ammo cylinder full as shown below.

Beginning with the broad strokes, the S&W Governor was shot with full and mixed cylinders of .410 bore 2 1/2′, standard pressure 45 Colt and 45 Automatic. After all of the firearms that have passed through Real Guns, I may just be building an immunity to recoil, but none of the calibers shot could be considered hard recoiling. I have to say, I got suckered into all of the social media embellishments and was expecting to be spun around, either arm rearward 360° rotation or full body corkscrew, but…

Type Ammo
Projectile Weight
Rem .410 UD 2 1/2  4 000BK 262 1225 720
Rem 45 Colt UD BJHP 230 850 712
Rem 45 Auto UHD BJHP 230 875 572

Keeping in mind that the Governor is a lightweight revolver, despite its N frame size, both 45 Auto and 45 Colt factory ammo recoiled lightly and would cause no issue with anyone with centerfire revolver experience.

The .410 shotshell loads noted felt like 158 grain 357 Magnum shot from a medium L frame revolver. I did not notice any appreciable muzzle blast or muzzle rise. Certainly no flame throwing muzzle flash, but then I don’t discharge firearms at night to see how much muzzle flash they generate. Chamber pressure for all cartridges are modest: 45 Auto 21000 psi 45 Colt 14000 psi .410 12500 psi.

Blue moon of Kentucky keep on shinning… sorry. I like to sing while I work

Use of 45 Auto ammo in the Governor is facilitated with moon clips, either pairs of 2 or a full six, but not half moon clips. In the case of the governor, the purpose of moon clips is two fold. Drop a 45 Auto round into the Governor’s chamber without a moon clip and the little rimless cartridge won’t stop until the case mouth hits the end of the cut chamber and its primer is 0.333″ down in the hole and far, far away from any firing pin.

The moon clip holds the 45 Auto cartridge to proper depth in the chamber and supports the cartridge when struck with the firing pin for reliable ignition. Secondly, the moon clip provide the contact surface for the ejector when removing spent cartridges.

Just an observation with no inference; factory 45 Auto ammunition, across a number of brands, measured 0.469″ at the case mouth. The Governor’s chamber at the 45 Auto case mouth position measured 0.482″. An oversize dimension necessitated by the need to accommodate 45 Colt and 410 shotshell ammo. Pure speculation, but I anticipate that the 45 Colt will perform better than the 45 Auto in Part II.

Defensive shot load anatomy

The 4, 000 buck shot projectiles in the Remington Ultimate Defense 2 1/2″ ammo each weigh 65.5 grains and are 0.360″ in diameter. Rated at 1225 fps MV, they checked 720 fps when fired from the S&W Governor. The idea is to get 4 pellets on a target. If I have time, I will check ballistic gel penetration in Part II, as it would be interesting to see how the low density  65.5 grain 0.36″ pellets perform at 720 fps.

In addition to the 000 Buck load work out, small diameter bird shot is also on the agenda. I have not had good luck with small shot and rifled barrels beyond a few yards, but I have not tried this type of load in the Governor and it deserves the check out.

Accuracy data? Not quite yet…

I did not shoot for accuracy in Part I, because I had not yet worked out a shooting plan as yet. I did, however, poke around at some of the Governor’s barrel and cylinder fit and dimensions.

The Governor’s bore measured 0.443″, the groove diameter measured .450″, rate of twist is 1:15″. For context; the SAAMI 45 Auto spec bore is 0.442″, with groove diameter 0.450″. The SAAMI 45 Colt spec bore is 0.442″ with a 0.450″ groove diameter. A SAAMI .410 smooth bore is 0.410″ -0.000″/+0.020″.

The SAAMI chamber diameter specs at the breech end of the respective cylinders are: 45 Auto 0.481″, 45 Colt 0.487″, .410 Bore 0.478″. The Smith & Wesson Governor chambers at the breech face measured 0.486″. The chamber throats measured 0.462″. The cylinder gap measured 0.009″.

The forcing cone entrance measured 0.456″, before tapering down to bore/groove diameter. What does that all mean? Not as yet. The chamber throat seems oversize, the rest seems right, but it will take a target and live fire to determine how well it all works works.


The S&W Governor is actually a pretty good looking revolver. The anodized black frame and PVD black stainless steel cylinder color and texture are an excellent match. Single and double action trigger pull are smooth, the thumb piece is a short, even stroke, the cylinder unlocks and locks cleanly. The K size grip works well in terms of recoil absorption and control.

In any event, more ammo is being rounded up, targets are being set up and I have an excuse to work with the Governor for another week.


Smith and Wesson’s Venerable Model 60 Sometimes a little can go a long ways

09/19/2021 – I just wrapped up the last live fire session for the S&W Model 60. I have to say, it was a lot of fun. But, Joe, aren’t all guns fun to shoot? Not really, but thank you for asking. As a personal perspective, some guns are boring. Some are not the greatest in…

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Ruger’s Mini Thirty 7.62×39 Deer season is on its way


Just ten more days until the official start of Fall and there are so many projects to wrap up before winter. Frequent, if not heavy rainfall, kept the porch deck wet. So all of the hours spent cleaning, deoxidizing and other prep work for staining and sealing 1,000 square feet of cedar boards will have to be done again in the spring.

Tall, birch and maple saplings closely line the driveway and need to be cut back. If not, the weight of snow and ice from winter storms will cause them to bow over to the blacktop and freeze in the ice, blocking traffic and the snow blower.

Fall insect spray, replace the floodlight on the shop, fall lawn prep, trim paint touch up, fruit tree pruning. Seems projects get worked every day, but the list keeps growing and I keep slowing. Ah yes, the pride of home ownership. Right about the time my wife and I convince ourselves it is worth all of the work, just for the privacy and view, the leaves will turn brown and blanket the lawn and the tax bill will arrive in the mail. But then there is always fall deer season…

This year, I believe I will set aside bolt and lever actions and go with Ruger Mini Thirty. Why not? They are fun to shoot, enough gun for the largest Maine deer and little to carry through dense Maine tree growth and brush.

Expectations for accuracy

The current state of bolt action rifles, synthetic stocks and V block bedding of one type or another, have created a generation of shooters with an expectation of sub MOA accuracy long guns. That is not to say expectations are always met, or that the shooter can deliver, or that this level of accuracy is even useful.

Read through a few threads on gun boards and you’ll find that about everyone shoots the erasers off of pencils at 300 yards and express disappointment to the core if the pencil’s ferrule is disturbed. No, I doubt they are aware that the accuracy they routinely profess exceeds worldwide bench rest records.

My very, very… very old Model 336 Marlin 30-30 WCF shot when new, and still shoots, 4″ 5 shot groups. It has been used routinely to hunt deer and hogs inside 100 yards. As a young hunter… in the days before hunters climbed tree stands, fell and dangled from harnessed like downed WW II paratroopers, preseason rifle checkout was simple; using metallic sights, shoot holes into an NRA SR-1 target placed out at 100 yards. A couple of 5 shot groups in the 6 3/2″ black and the rifle was good to go.

The thing about hunting with an old rifle and favorite ammunition is that you will eventually be able to anticipate where the second shot will hit, relative to the first, and the third relative to the second, etc. Group size does not have to be tiny as long as shots fall predictably and the shooter is familiar with his rifle.

Not an MOA to be found, not even in war…

While the military has always had refined versions of service rifles for use by snipers and for use in marksmanship competition, issue rifles from the 1903 Springfield through to the M1 Garand and M14 have a 5.0″ – 5.5″ 100 yard group standard.

This did not improve much with newer issue rifles. The M16 and M4 have a 4″ group standard. The Ruger Mini Thirty is, for all intent and purposes, a downsized M14, but significantly more accurate.

Which Mini Thirty are they talking about?

Introduced to consumers in 1987, the Ruger Mini Thirty and Mini 14 have evolved over the years. In 2003, the Ruger Mini production process was overhauled and tolerances tightened. The gas system was modified to reduce barrel vibration and metallic sights were upgraded. The result was a significant improvement in accuracy.

2007 brought a thicker barrel taper at the gas block and improved production process again tightened parts fit. Further headway was made in improved accuracy.

While people who never or rarely shot the Mini 14 and Mini Thirty, or are prone to exaggeration, and critically report shotgun like groups in the comments sections of social media, the numerous examples I have worked with over the past four or five years will put up between 1 3/4″ and 2 3/4″ 5 shot groups, with performance very much dependent upon factory ammo selected, time of day, ambient temperature, and winds aloft.

Careful modification to bedding, trigger, gas system, and barrel tensioning can consistently yield a Mini that can deliver sub 1″ groups.

Personally, I am OK with 2 3/4″ groups and a lot less time, effort and extracurricular to firearm purchase funding. See previously mentioned old Marlin.

The stubby 7.62×39 for the stubby Ruger Mini Thirty

Mini Thirty


Ruger – USA
Model # 5804
Barreled Action
Stainless Steel
Stock Hardwood
Action Type Fixed Piston / Moving Cylinder – Gas
Caliber 7.62 x 39
Magazine Capacity  2 x 5 Rounds As Supplied
Barrel Length 18.50″
Twist Rate 1:10″
Sights Adjustable Peep Aft – Blade Front
Scope Mounting Ruger Rings & Rail Included
Overall Length 37.50″
Length of Pull 13.0″
Weight 7 lbs
Trigger Pull 5 lbs 11 oz
MSRP $1279

The current Mini Thirty 7.62×39 is supplied with 2 5 round magazines, proprietary Ruger rings that clamp to scalloped cut into the sides of the rifle’s the receiver and lock into keyways in the top of the receiver.A Picatinny standard rail is included for folks who opt non-Ruger system scope mounting or red dot and similar sight systems. Both 10 and 20 round magazines are available as after sale accessories at ShopRuger.Com.

Above, a little more detail image illustrating scope/sight mounting systems.

Controls are in easy reach and about where your hands would expect to find them. The bolt locks open on empty to facilitate reloading.

The 7.62×39 imported and domestic versions

The 7.62x39mm was adopted by the Russian military in 1943, predominately finding its way into the Russian semi automatic SKS, selective fire AK47 rifles and the RPD light machine gun. Eventually, inexpensive semi automatic versions of military surplus firearms were imported into the United States along with huge quantities of inexpensive military surplus ammunition.

The cartridge and rifles became very popular. So much so that Ruger introduced the Mini Thirty, chambered in 7.62×39 in 1987 for both domestic and export markets. Ruger reinforced their commitment to the cartridge in 1991 when that chamber was also made available in the Ruger M77 Mark II. Ruger currently offers six variations of Mini Thirty and one bolt action American Ranch rifle in 7.62×39.

There are at least two consumer versions of the 7.62×39. The Russian submitted version of the 7.62×39 exists as a CIP cartridge with a 7.92mm (0.311″) diameter projectile and 3550 BAR (51,476 PSI) Pmax pressure rating. The 7.62×39 SAAMI version  has a 0.311″ +0.000″/-0.002″ bullet diameter spec and 45,000 PSI MAP. The Ruger Mini-Thirty’s nominal groove diameter is 0.3105″ and bore diameter is 0.3080″, The Mini Thirty is designed for use with SAAMI complaint ammunition.

Topping off an 812 Superfast gas tank with kerosene

OK, an 812 Superfast may be overselling the point, but maybe… a Ford F-150 4×4 with a 5.0 L cammer. For some reason, some folks insist on shooting really terrible ammunition with their Ruger Min Thirty firearms.

One of the quickest ways to get improved accuracy from a Mini Thirty is to use proper ammunition… which is defined in at least three sections of the owner’s manual as U.S. or foreign SAAMI complaint production. Proper ammunition, not expensive ammunition.

Brass casings, boxer primers, a bullet diameter of 0.311 +0.000″/-0.002″ and 45kpsi MAP. Not the same a CIP standard 3550 BAR (51,476 psi) Pmax ammunition are not the same as steel cased, Berdan primed, poly coated Russian and similar bulk ammo. Not only does the use of non-spec ammo result in inaccuracy, but hard Berdan primers result in misfires.

L – R: Herter’s steel cased, Berdan primed 122 grain (2 3/4″ groups), Federal American Eagle, brass case, Boxer primed 124 grain (2 1/2″ groups), PPU brass case, Boxer primed, 123 grain (5/8″). I attribute the accuracy of the PPU ammo to its 100+ fps high velocity and short bullet as better stabilized with the rifle’s 1:10″ twist.

Handloading and right size bullets

I have, and do, occasionally reload 7.62×39 ammo with 0.308″ diameter bullets. When I do, the best accuracy comes from short, flat base, round nose bullets produced for the 30-30 WCF cartridge. They seem to stabilize the best and ballistic coefficient within a hundred yards can be barn door like without adverse effect. As the 7.62×39 delivers 30-30 WCF like performance, these bullets penetrate and expand well on medium size game.

Still, I have had good luck cherry picking 0.310″ – 0.311″ bullets, some intended for the 7.62×39, some for the 303 British, some for others. Most reloading manuals list both 0.308″, 0.310″ and 0.311″ bullets within the load data they provide for the 7.62×39. Most reloading die sets come with an expander ball in 0.308″ and 0.311″.

Most manufacturers, firearms and reloading component recommend cannelured bullets and crimping. I do follow that recommendation and use a Lee Factory Crimp die when no cannelure is present. I do not crimp ammunition when assembled for a bolt action application and I tend to work at higher chamber and bore pressure levels.

Bullet Grains Type Diameter “ Length “
Hornady Interlock 123 JSP 0.310 0.875
Sierra Pro Hunter 125 JSP 0.311 0.905
Speer Hot-Cor 150 JSP 0.311 1.006
Sierra Pro-Hunter 180 JSP 0.311 1.192

Other than the Hornady 123 grain, which is made specifically for the 7.62×39, all bullets are box labeled for the 303 British. However, all bullet diameters fall within the SAAMI 7.62×39 spec. All are bullets we have used routinely and effectively with the 7.62×39 and are the basis for our published load data.

This time around…

Warning: Bullet selections are specific, and loads are not valid with substitutions of different bullets of the same weight. Variations in bullet length will alter net case capacity,  pressure and velocity. Primer selection is specific and primer types are not interchangeable. These are maximum loads in my firearms and may be excessive in others. All loads should be reduced by 5% as a starting point for development where cartridges have greater than 40 grains in capacity and 10% for cartridges with less than 40 grain capacity following safe handloading practices as represented in established mainstream reloading manuals. Presentation of these loads does not constitute a solicitation for their use, nor a recommendation.

7.62×39 – MAP 45KPSI
Firearm Ruger Mini-Thirty
Barrel Length 18.50″
Max Case Length 1.528″ +0.000″/-0.015″
Min – Max COL 2.150″ – 2.200″
Primer CCI 200(LR)
Bullet Diameter 0.3110″ +0.000″/-0.0020″
Reloading Dies Lee Precision


Bullet Type Bullet

Net H2O
COL” Powder Type Powder



3 Shot
100 Yard
Hornady Interlock 123
AA 1680
Hornady Interlock
123 31.5 2.190 Re 10x 29.0C 2462 1656 1.6
Hornady Interlock
123 31.5 2.190 CFE BLK 29.5 2554 1782 2.2
Hornady Interlock
123 31.5 2.190 H335 32.0 2391 1562 1.5
Sierra Pro-Hunter
Re 7
Sierra Pro-Hunter
125 29.8 2.150 Re 10x 28.0C 2417 1622 2.0
Sierra Pro-Hunter
125 29.8 2.150 CFE BLK 29.0 2379 1571 1.2
Sierra Pro-Hunter
125 29.8 2.150 H335 31.5 2415 1619 1.9
Speer Hot-Cor
AA 2015
Speer Hot-Cor
150 28.7 2.190 Re 10x 26.0 2156 1549 1.5
Speer Hot-Cor
150 28.7 2.190 AR-Comp 28.0C 2170 1569 2.1
Speer Hot-Cor
150 28.7 2.190 H335 29.0 2165 1562 1.8
Sierra Pro-Hunter
AA 2015
Sierra Pro-Hunter
180 25.6 2.200 Re 10x 22.5 1883 1418 2.3
Sierra Pro-Hunter
180 25.6 2.200 AR-Comp 24.5C 1792 1284
Sierra Pro-Hunter
180 25.6 2.200 H335 25.5 1845 1361 2.2

And this works for me…

I always try to post a more complete picture for engineers who have taken up shooting sports and tell me I do not provide enough information. The reloading press was bright green, the little trays that hold components were dark blue and I was listening to easy listening rock while reloading. Resizing effort was 23 fig newtons. For everyone else, the 7.62×39 is easy to reload and requires only following the conventions at the front of every reloading manual that has been printed for the past one hundred years.

Yes, I am getting cranky. It is just about supper time. I had a lot of fun working with the Ruger and now I feel like taking a nap,  but I have to write this all down…

For people who hunt dense woodland, and perhaps those with a need for a rural home defense gun, the Ruger Mini Thirty is a good fit. For folks who like to go to the range, shoot a gun with character and hang out with friends, the Ruger Mini Thirty is again a good answer. For deer, hogs, coyote size varmints, and a gun that can be carried on a sling with a hand left free for selfies, the Mini Thirty would be a good one.

If the objective is to shoot from a bench every day, blow through 500 rounds of ammo and put them all through a single hole in a target, this would not be the gun.

Yes, there is a good deal more in the Ruger Mini Thirty to unlock, and there are specialty shops that will guarantee sub 1″ performance for a not ridiculous price. But for out of the box performance and for brush hunting in Maine… and just about every place else with similar circumstances, the performance is excellent.